In the field of service marketing, quality is very closely related to employee performance. An important feature of successful organizations is motivated employees. Therefore, an employee's attitude towards the workplace and furthermore how the company can motivate employees have a direct effect on the quality of the products offered to customers. One of the most important challenges for a manager is how to make employees feel motivated and will act that can support the achievement of the goals of the organization.
The concept of internal marketing arises from the field of service marketing and its main concern is that everyone involved in interacting with customers can provide the best service to customers. The overall objective of the internal marketing process is to recruit the right staff members, so that they have a high level of collaboration among colleagues and develop motivated and customer-aware employees.
The evolution of the concept of internal marketing
The concept of internal marketing originates from the field of service marketing which initially concentrated on ways that everyone involved in the service delivery process can continue to improve the quality of interaction and service provided to customers "(Gummesson, 2000, p.27). The use of this concept is widespread and is now accepted in all forms of organization. Based on management quality theory, employees are internal consumers of a company. According to Gummesson (2000):
"The ability of employees to satisfy the needs of external customers is influenced by the company's ability to satisfy internal customers. Only if the relationship with internal customers goes well, then internal customers can improve quality, then lead to satisfaction or even more than that attract external consumers "
Definition of internal marketing concepts
One of the most basic definitions of the concept of internal marketing is, according to Cahill (1996), Internal marketing is attracting, developing, motivating and accepting qualified employees in the company's business to satisfy the needs of consumers. Internal marketing is the philosophy of a method of treating employees so they can serve consumers well "(Cahill, 1996, p.3).
This definition emphasizes the importance of satisfying the needs of employees in order to develop, motivate and get the best quality of employees in serving consumers.
Some definitions emphasize customer awareness and attention to internal customer / employee satisfaction, such as Johnson and Seymour (1985), who argue that internal marketing activities should:
"Creating an internal environment that supports customer awareness and attention to sales" (Johnson & Seymour, 1985, p.226)
And Grönroos (1994, p. 13) the definition of this concept, which states:
"Internal marketing of employees is best motivated for the purpose of thinking about service and customer-oriented performance by means of an approach similar to marketing and active, where various activities are used internally in an active way, similar to marketing, and coordinated."
The purpose of this activity is to improve the quality of external marketing relationships. (Ballantyne, 2000, p.43).
In conclusion, the definitions above show that internal marketing is a philosophy for the management of large service organizations, where employees are seen as customers and with the overall goal of improving the quality of service to external customers.
Why does an organization need internal marketing?
Employees in service companies, especially front-line personnel, have a direct effect on customer satisfaction. In this context, internal marketing is introduced. In this description, according to Grönroos (1983), that organizations must adopt market research, appropriate marketing activities and market segmentation to attract, retain and make employees act in the desired way.
The purpose of internal marketing
The overall goal of the internal marketing process is to get appropriate staff members as contact persons and for managerial positions, have high cooperation among colleagues (Grönroos, 1996) and "develop employees who are aware of the meaning of a customer and are motivated" (Grönroos, 1983 , p.93). The internal marketing process is not seen as a process that only moves in one direction only - from the top down. Instead, the process needs to be directed from and to each side of the organization so that the organization can be successful (Grönroos, 1996).
According to (Grönroos, 1996). The objectives of internal marketing activities are:
"Creating a stable workforce with reduced work absenteeism and absence, and best of all, a workforce with a high moral level, initiative and responsibility, commitment to service to customers"
In order to achieve the objectives of internal marketing, companies need to create an internal environment that makes employees behave the way they want, which is actively facilitated and inter-functional activities (Grönroos, 1983). The two main human factors that can affect productivity are the ability and effort of employees in their work. Regarding commitment, research suggests it is useful for predicting for example turnover, absenteeism and work performance (Paxon, 1993). According to Paxon (1993), Modway, Porter and Steers (1982) explain commitment as follows:
"The relative strength of personal identification with and involvement in certain organizations. Conceptually, it can be characterized by at least three factors: (a) strong acceptance and trust in the goals and values of the organization; (b) willingness to issue appropriate business for the benefit of the organization; and (c) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization "(Paxon, 1993, p.213).
Paxon (1993) explains commitment as follows:
"Structural phenomena that occur as a result of individual-organizational transactions and changes in side bets or investments over time."
This definition considers to heed what is felt by the employee, for example the loss of profits or the consideration of making new friends, which affects the employee's decision to stay or leave the organization (Mottaz, 1989; Singh and Vinnicombe, 1998). Both of these definitions describe commitment as a bond or relationship between an individual and an organization but they differ in how the bond develops (Paxon, 1993). Commitment is the result of an evaluation of the work situation, which connects employees with the organization (Mottaz, 1989). This type of commitment is defined in the literature as an attitude commitment (attitudinal commitment) or an influence commitment (affective commitment) and the second type of calculation or continuous commitment (calculative or continuance commitment), which describes a different view of the idea (Paxon, 1993).
A motivating personnel policy is needed that is logical and fair. If such a policy does not exist, then internal marketing efforts will be fruitless. The motivating personnel policy starts with a job description, which is customer oriented and considers the marketing and sales responsibilities that come with the job.
However some reflections for job descriptions are too rigid, which has a negative result on the flexibility of first-line personnel. With a clear job description obtained the recruitment procedure and the right recruitment policy so that it can get employees who can provide good service to customers (Grönroos, 1996). The concept of recruitment according to Grönroos, (1996). regarding the concept:
"Recruitment includes practices and activities carried out by the organization with the main objective of identifying and attracting potential employees"
According to Breaugh and Starke (2000), the first step in the recruitment process is goal setting (for example what classifies the person, which makes the organization interested in hiring). After setting clear objectives, a recruitment strategy can be developed and it can be decided which recruitment resources will be used. After that, to achieve goals, organizations can carry out and work with necessary activities such as message formulation, newspaper advertisements, recruiters (Breaugh and Starke, 2000). Such recruitment policies consist of segmenting potential workforces to find the most suitable employees for the company (Grönroos, 1996; Cahill, 1996). After getting a group of potential employees, the next step in the process is choosing who will be a member of the organization. Interviewing potential candidates is a common strategy for the selection and other approaches explaining the actual work, which will give a more real picture of the assignment that will be undertaken for the applicant. A reward system (for example, financially, promotion) will result in market and customer orientation (Grönroos, 1996) and also, together with educational incentives, will reduce things such as high levels of job refusal.
Internal training policy
In every company is a need to have an internal training policy, with the aim to motivate employees to work. Professional development is continuously needed, and not only includes technical work, but more importantly instills the importance of the meaning of customers, marketing and sales (Cahill, 1996; Grönroos, 1996). Rarely do personnel at the forefront of service companies realize their importance as marketers and influence on the long-term benefits of an organization. However it should be noted that a successful internal training policy is not the only answer to an organization's problems. There is no internal training policy that can produce positive results unless the policy is integrated with management methods that can motivate employees and plan procedures and are well controlled (Grönroos, 1996).
Planning and control procedures
Interaction between frontline personnel and customers is a natural part of daily life in the service industry. In this interaction, front-line personnel have an extraordinary opportunity to obtain information about customer needs, the quality of the service delivery process and customer experience regarding product quality. Motivating planning and control procedures must lead to prioritizing this knowledge. However, natural interactions between organizations and customers are too often disturbed by poor organizational systems (Grönroos, 1996).
Internal marketing at the tactic level
The purpose of internal marketing at the tactic level is to "market services, support services, (which are used as a means of competition), campaigns, and internal marketing efforts to employees" (Grönroos, 1983, p.95). This is achieved by viewing employees as the first market for organizations (Gummeson, 2000; Grönroos, 1996). furthermore, an understanding must be created in employees which is why they are expected to carry out tasks with certain attitudes and in certain situations. An attitude of acceptance between service employees and other activities of the company must be achieved, so that they can support services in their interactions with customers (Grönroos, 1983; Cahill, 1996). In addition, services from the company must have developed optimally and received internally before launching and the internal information channel must have worked (Grönroos, 1983).
Internal marketing mix for competitive advantage at the level of tactics according to Grönroos (1996) consists of:
* Interactive communication
(with the overall goal of changing attitudes),
* Sales assistance
(e.g. pamphlets, slide shows)
* Non interactive communication
(e.g. advertisements, pamphlets, wall calendars),
(salary levels and side benefits are compared directly with prices for certain services
* Things easily achieved
(flexible working hours, geographic location of the workplace),
* And supporting service activities
(e.g. meals and child care are free). (Grönroos, 1996).
The definition of internal marketing concept emphasizes the importance of improving service quality. This shows that there is a strong feeling towards quality management and the key to improving service quality is optimal internal marketing management. Company awareness in realizing the importance of the direct effect of internal marketing success on customer satisfaction and the importance of staff motivation for business success. Will produce a competitive advantage for the company.
Ballantyne, D., (2000), “The strengths and weaknesses of internal marketing”
Breaugh, J.A. and Starke, M., (2000), Research on Employee Recruitment: So Many Studies, So many questions, Journal of Management Remaining Questions, ,Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 405-434.
Cahill, D.J., (1996), Internal Marketing: Your Company’s Next Stage of Growth, New York, The Haworth Press, Inc.
Gummesson, E., (2000), “Internal marketing in the light of relationship marketing and network organizations”
Grönroos, C. (1994), ”From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm Shift Management Decision in Marketing”, Vol. 32, No.2, pp. 4 - 20.
Grönroos, C., (1996), The theory of internalmarketing
Grönroos, C., (1983), Strategic Management and Marketing in the Service Sector , Studentlitteratur,Sweden, and Chartwell-Bratt Ltd, UK.
Johnson, E.M. and Seymour, D.T., (1985), ”The Impact of Cross Selling on the Service Encounter in Retail Banking
Mottaz, D.J., (1989), An analysis of the relationship between attitudinal commitment and behavioral The Sociological Quarterly commitment, , Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 143-158.
Paxon, M.C., (1993), A review of the organizational commitment literature as applied to Progress in Tourism, hospitality organizations, Recreation and Hospitality, 5, pp. 211-228.
Rafiq, M. and Ahmed, P.K., (1993), ”The Scope of Internal Marketing: Defining the Boundary Between Marketing and Human Resource Journal of Marketing Management”, Vol. 9, pp. 219 - 232.
Singh, V. and Vinnicombe, S., (2000), What does commitment” really mean? Views of UK and Personnel Review Swedish engineering managers, ,Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 228-258.
Wright, P. in Molander, C., (1989), Human Resource Management, Studentlitteratur, Lund.
I felt very happy while reading this site. This was really very informative site for me. I really liked it. This was really a cordial post. Thanks a lot!. content marketing for family businessesReplyDelete
You may hear (or read about) people buzzing about hashtags and how much they use them to brand their products and/or services. Hashtags are a communications tool that can be used with several of the popular social media channels. 토토먹튀검증ReplyDelete
I needed several examples to write an article on this subject, and your article was of great help to me.바카라사이트ReplyDelete
This is one of the best website I have seen in a long time thankyou so much, thankyou for let me share this website to all my friends.온라인바둑이ReplyDelete
Its an amazing website, really enjoy your articles. Helpful and interesting too. Keep doing this in future. I will support you.카지노사이트ReplyDelete
Just want to say your article is as astounding. The clearness in your postReplyDelete
is simply excellent and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject.
Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.오피사이트
Hi there mates, how is all, and what you would like to say concerning this
article, in my view its truly awesome in favor of me.
That's a great article! The neatly organized content is good to see. Can I quote a blog and write it on my blog? My blog has a variety of communities including these articles. Would you like to visit me later? 온라인카지노ReplyDelete
I wan’t going to comment as this posts a bit old now, but just wanted to say thanks.카지노사이트프로ReplyDelete
Excellent information on your blog, thank you for taking the time to share with us. Amazing insight you have on this, it's nice to find a website that details so much information about different artists. 바카라사이트ReplyDelete
Really trustworthy blog. Please keep updating with great posts like this one.바카라사이트인포ReplyDelete
Really no matter if someone doesn't be aware of after that its up to other users that they will help, so here it takes place bongdo.ReplyDelete
It's excellent. You will certainly really feel that your writing is unbelievable even if you consider it. I enjoyed to see your writing as well as my sensations are still sticking around. I wish you will certainly be impressed similar to me when you see my writing. Would certainly you such as to find and also see my article? click through the next siteReplyDelete
"Hello, I am one of the most impressed people in your article. I’m very curious about how you write such a good article. Are you an expert on this subject? I think so. Thank you again for allowing me to read these posts, and have a nice day today. Thank you."ReplyDelete
Really, you have some great tips here 대딸방. Thanks for sharing. I sometimes get so caught up in writing my own blogs I forget to put the right thought into the comments. You’ve healed me, however!ReplyDelete
Beautiful blog, 스포츠마사지– thank you for sharing! I will include your link in my new post. And I left a comment on your latest article about finding and using your gifting.ReplyDelete
I think this is the best I’ve seen till now. You can certainly visit your expertise inside the article you write.ReplyDelete
Your blog is really nice. Its sound really goodReplyDelete
Great blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything.ReplyDelete
This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. 토토ReplyDelete
Amazing insight you have on this, it's nice to find a website that details so much information about different artists. 온라인카지노ReplyDelete
Nice Post! Thank you for the info information. 바카라사이트ReplyDelete
I will wait for posts like this and will read them with pleasure.카지노사이트ReplyDelete
Thanks for sharing excellent information. Your web site is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you've on this site. 카지노사이트ReplyDelete
I am regular visitor, how are you everybody? This paragraph posted at this website is genuinely fastidious.ReplyDelete
Really nice and interesting post. I was looking for this kind of information and enjoyed reading this one. Keep posting. Thanks for sharing. 텍사스홀덤사이트ReplyDelete
I discovered your this post while hunting down data about site related examination ... It's a decent post .. continue posting and upgrading data.ReplyDelete
I am interested in this area if you are a great site but know some community forums. I think it should be a good opportunity to get feedback from others who are experienced. 한국야동ReplyDelete
Also feel free to visit may web page check this link 야설
Yes i am totally agreed with this article and i just want to say that this article is very nice and very informative. More blogs please. 한국야동ReplyDelete
Also feel free to visit may web page check this link 야설
Very nice article and straight to the point. I don't know if this is truly the best place to ask but do you folks have any idea where to get some professional writers? Thank you. 야동ReplyDelete
Also feel free to visit may web page check this link 국산야동
This is my first time i visit here. I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your articles, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here keep up the good work 국산야동ReplyDelete
Also feel free to visit may web page check this link 한국야동
This is really nice. I would like to thank you for the information that you gave to us. 사설토토ReplyDelete
Excellent read, Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting? I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style. Thanks a million and please keep up the effective work. 카지노ReplyDelete
Thank you for some other informative website. The place else may just I get that kind of information written in such a perfect method? 파워볼ReplyDelete
I am very happy that you have composed this kind of website that is superb. I really like it and I will be really planning to spare it. Thank you 온라인카지노ReplyDelete
Excellent post, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists of this sector don’t notice this. You must continue your writing. I’m sure, you have a great readers’ base already! 파친코ReplyDelete
Hi there, I simply hopped over in your website by way of StumbleUpon. Now not one thing I’d typically learn, but I favored your emotions none the less. Thank you for making something worth reading. 메이저사이트순위ReplyDelete
Thanks for such a fantastic blog. Where else could anyone get that kind of info written in such a perfect way? I have a presentation that I am presently writhing on, and I have been on the look out for such great information. 먹튀검증사이트ReplyDelete
I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I’m quite sure I’ll learn plenty of new stuff right here! Good luck for the next. 먹튀검증업체ReplyDelete
I was looking for another article by chance and found your article 룰렛 I am writing on this topic, so I think it will help a lot. I leave my blog address below. Please visit once.ReplyDelete
I was impressed by your writing.ReplyDelete
Your writing is impressive. I want to write like you.
I hope you can read my post
and let me know what to modify.
My writing is in I would like you to visit my blog.
It has fully emerged to crown Singapore's southern shores and undoubtedly placed her on the global map of residential landmarks. I still scored the more points than I ever have in a season for GS. I think you would be hard pressed to find somebody with the same consistency I have had over the years so I am happy with that. 메이저토토사이트ReplyDelete
"You are so intriguing! I figure I haven't really scrutinized anything equivalent already.ReplyDelete
It's uncommon to find someone who has a certified idea on this point.
Genuinely, thank you for starting this.
오랫동안 많은 업체들과 함께 데이터 베이스를
구축하였으며 유져님들께서 안전한 놀이터
및 메이저 사이트에서 부담없이
최적의 스포츠게임을 즐기실수 있게 최고의
This webpage is a necessary thing on the Internet,
somewhat creative person!토토사이트"
Wow, that’s what I was looking for, what a information! present here at this weblog, thanks admin of this web page.ReplyDelete
This is an informative blog by which I have got that info which I really wanted to get.ReplyDelete
It’s very simple to find out any matter on net as compared to books, as I found this post at this site. 바둑이게임ReplyDelete
Your blogs are truly awesome. Keep it up. 바카라사이트ReplyDelete
This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I've joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your wonderful 메이저토토. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!ReplyDelete
Thanks for your marvelous posting! 스포츠토토ReplyDelete
I like your all post. You have done really good work. Thank you for the information you provide, it helped me a lot 경마사이트ReplyDelete
Nice information, you write very nice articles, I visit your website for regular updates. 릴게임ReplyDelete
This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. 토토ReplyDelete
I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. Awesome!ReplyDelete
This post is really astounding blog to read! Keep it upReplyDelete
Hello there! This post could not be written any better! 바카라사이트ReplyDelete
I read it and I'm very happy with the post. Let's spread good stories like this again.ReplyDelete
I will make sure to be reading your blog more. You made a good point. 배트맨토토ReplyDelete
Fantastic blog extremely good well enjoyed with the incredible informative content which surely activates the learners to gain the enough knowledge. 안전토토사이트ReplyDelete
I just got to this amazing site not long ago. I was actually captured with the piece of resources you have got here. 바카라사이트ReplyDelete
Hi there, I enjoy reading all of your article.
very interesting information and i really glad to getting this information
Very nice article. I certainly love this website.ReplyDelete
I really like looking at and I believe this website got some really useful stuff on it!ReplyDelete
You should take part in a contest for one of the highest quality sites on the web.ReplyDelete
Nice one! Thank you for sharing this post.ReplyDelete
I read your blog and I can't stop my self to read your full blog.ReplyDelete
Its an amazing website, I really enjoy reading your articles.ReplyDelete
You delivered such an impressive piece to read, giving every subject enlightenment for us to gain information. Thanks for sharing such information with us due to which my several concepts have been cleared. 카지노사이트ReplyDelete
Now not one thing I’d typically learn, but I favored your emotions none the less. Thank you for making something worth reading. 바카라사이트ReplyDelete
This is really helpful post and very informative there is no doubt about it.ReplyDelete
I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. 카지노사이트ReplyDelete
GTA5 Online Funny Moments - Diamond 선시티게임 Heists Prep!ReplyDelete
This content is simply exciting and creative. I have been deciding on an institutional move and this has helped me with one aspect.ReplyDelete
I am surprised by their high level of professionalism. Here I found the information I have been looking for for a long time. I love reading and discussing his other posts. Learn moreReplyDelete
Overall, you are running a blog with a lot of information. In the same area, it is considered as the site that provides the first value service. visit hereReplyDelete
I wanted to thank you for this good read!! I certainly enjoyed every little bit of it.
I finally found great post here. Thanks for the information. Please keep sharing more articles.카지노사이트핫ReplyDelete
I went over this internet site and I think you have a lot of great info , saved to favorites.ReplyDelete
It was wondering if I could use this write-up on my other website, I will link it back to your website though. ⋆ 온라인카지노 ⋆ReplyDelete
The post is written in very a good manner and it contains many useful information for me.ReplyDelete
❣ 온라인카지노 ❣
Really, your post is informative, thanks a lot for sharing this post that is very useful for us. ❥ 바카라 ❥ReplyDelete
Nice informative post. Thanks for sharing this beautiful blog. Keep sharing more blogs. DUI Attorney Fredericksburg VAReplyDelete
It was so bravely and depth information. I feel so good read to your blog.ReplyDelete
I stumbled onto your blog and read a few post.I m very pleased to read this article!ReplyDelete
Thank you very much for the post you do.ReplyDelete
Thank you for sharing this useful article , and this design blog simple and user friendly regards.ReplyDelete
Your writing is truly impressive! Your blog post was both well-crafted and engaging, and your ideas were truly innovativeReplyDelete
Divorce Lawyers Stafford VA
Nice Blog. Thanks for sharing with us. Such amazing information.ReplyDelete
Guest Posting Site
Best Guest Blogging Site
Guest Blogging Site